Engines

A piston engine
Whether it's the one in your lawn mower or car, all piston engines operate on the same basic principle. They use a four-step process of intake, compression, combustion, and exhaust to convert fuel to energy.
Air injection engines
Your car may be equipped with a system that reduces exhaust fumes by mixing air with the exhaust to help dilute potentially harmful substances. It's known as an air injector reaction system.
Catalytic engines
Most cars made after 1975 are equipped with devices designed to reduce the release of harmful gases into the air from exhaust emissions. The catalytic converter is the main component on your car that helps control pollutants from being released into the atmosphere.
Controlling emissions
Without an emissions control system, harmful gases from your car's exhaust would be pumped into the earth's atmosphere without any control. The emissions control system contains several components to help keep potential pollutants from damaging the air you breathe.
Crankcase ventilation
In the process of combustion, several gases and vapors are formed, and some of them could potentially cause damage to your engine if they're not vented.
Diesel
Diesel engines and gasoline engines differ, yet are the same in many ways. Both engines use the four- stroke system of intake, compression, ignition, and exhaust.
Gas exhaust re-circulation
Exhaust gas recirculation, or E-G-R systems have been used on automobiles and other vehicles since the 1970's. The main purpose of the system is to control temperatures in your car's combustion chambers, which may help reduce the amount of oxides of nitrogen in exhaust.
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