The ureter (yoo-REE-ter), one of four parts that make up a woman's urinary tract, transports waste produced by the kidneys to the bladder. Warning signs of ureteral cancer in women are blood in the urine, abdominal or localized back pain, weight and appetite loss, anemia, and persistent fever. If any one of these symptoms does not disappear within several weeks, get a checkup. Ureteral cancer is approximately three and half to four times more likely to occur in men than women. Because of the relative infrequency of ureteral cancer incidents, the risk factors are generally unknown. However, most patients with ureteral cancer are smokers. Treatment for highly malignant tumors usually consists of removing the kidney, ureter, and a portion of the bladder. For tumors that are low-grade, the treatment is surgical removal of the lower ureter and a portion of the bladder. The remaining ureter is then reconnected to the remaining bladder. For more information on ureteral cancer, contact your healthcare provider.